The Ancient Greeks - Lucille Turner
The Fall of Constantinople

The Fall of Constantinople

Present-day Istanbul was once called Constantinople, and it was in Greek hands until it fell to the Ottoman army in 1453. For centuries the city was the principal capital of the Christian world, until Rome replaced it little by little, exerting its power through the...
A Short History of Ideas – Heaven

A Short History of Ideas – Heaven

As the Greek world died away the Roman Empire became the principal power in Europe and the Mediterranean basin.  With its blend of military might and relative barbarity, it broke the spirit of creativity the Hellenic world had generated. It made people fear the future...

Greek Philosophy Boiled Down – Part X

In his History of Western Philosophy, Bertrand Russell writes, “Until the Punic Wars, the Romans had been a bucolic people, with the virtues and vices of farmers: austere, industrious, brutal, obstinate and stupid.” It was only when they came into contact with the...

Greek Philosophy Boiled Down – Part IX

In the second century BC, while the Roman Empire was stocking its legions and perfecting its drills, the outlook of Greek philosophers was becoming more and more individualistic. They began to abandon ideas that no longer had a place in the chaos and uncertainty of...

Greek Philosophy Boiled Down – Part VIII

  Aristotle’s pupil was a certain Alexander, a Macedonian prince who would grow up to establish an empire as big as the empire of the Ottomans, which would come into being a thousand years later. The Ottomans would one day take the last remnant of the Greek world, the...